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Pupil Performance and Age: A Study of Promotion, Repetition and Dropout Rates Among Pupils in Four Age Groups in 35 Countries

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School performance, age group, promotion, repetition, dropout

This working paper investigates the extent of under- and overage pupils in developing countries and the differences in school performance by age group. The study finds that in the lower grades of primary school, older pupils generally outperform younger ones and younger pupils are far more likely to repeat grades. In higher grades of primary school and in all grades of secondary school, older pupils under-perform; they are less likely to be promoted and more likely to drop out of school than younger pupils.


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